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Load-Balanced Opportunistic Routing for Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks


Pooja Swamy , VTU


Opportunistic Routing, Wireless Sensor, Networks


In duty-cycled wireless sensor networks running asynchronous MAC protocols, the time when a sender waits for its receiver to wake up and receive the packet is the major source of energy consumption. Opportunistic routing can reduce the sender wait time by allowing multiple candidate receivers, but by doing that it suffers from redundant packet forwarding due to multiple receivers waking up at the same time. Thus, the number of forwarders should be controlled in a way that overall forwarding cost is minimized considering both sender wait time and cost of redundant packet forwarding. Also, in order to prolong network lifetime, candidate forwarders should be selected so that load is balanced among nodes. We propose ORR, an opportunistic routing protocol that addresses the two issues. First, the optimal number of forwarders is calculated based on forwarding cost estimation, which is derived from duty cycle and network topology. Second, the metric used for selecting forwarders considers residual energy so that more traffic is guided through nodes with larger remaining energy. The resulting routing protocol is proven to avoid loops and shown to achieve longer network lifetime compared to other protocols regardless of duty cycle and network topology.

Other Details

Paper ID: IJSRDV6I70038
Published in: Volume : 6, Issue : 7
Publication Date: 01/10/2018
Page(s): 123-125

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